【迷影对话】相见恨晚——从阿拉伯的劳伦斯到大卫•里恩(下)

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【对话者】
magasa:电影史研究者。
赛人:知名影评人,电影频道节目策划。
张思雨:影视从业者。
林泽秋:影视从业者。
妖灵妖:电影文化工作者。
郑子宏:策展人,HKIFF节目经理。
兰波:影评人,影视从业者。

【下篇:大卫•里恩】

1、库布里克说:“有一些电影导演你必须去关注,我会把费里尼、伯格曼、大卫•里恩放在最高的级别,特吕弗放在下一个级别里。 ” 但与库布里克的美誉相比,大卫•里恩在中国年轻影迷的知名度和流传程度似乎没有想象中的高(参见迷影网10X10评选)?

magasa:是的,他拍历史片、古典名著改编片比较多,本来就不是拉风的类型。

赛人:这两个英国人,库布里克对未来不抱希望,大卫•里恩则认为,过去没那么美好。大卫•里恩好的地方,他不急于把绝望写在脸上。二位的孰高孰低,纯粹是各花入各眼。迷影网的人大抵还是年轻的,其实大卫•里恩的影片,早在上世纪70年代就已经引进到国内院线,如《孤星血泪》、《印度之行》。中央电视台和电影频道也播映过《相见恨晚》和《桂河大桥》。相信年龄偏长的人对大卫•里恩会更怀有深情,这也可说大卫•里恩的电影,很多时候也像个老人一样,十分的念旧。

张思雨:不光影迷,专业院校的师生也很少讨论大卫•里恩,大家习惯性关注更作者化的导演。并且史诗和名著改编类电影需要受众对其历史文化语境有一定认知,流行起来相对困难。

林泽秋:不了解。

妖灵妖:里恩的年代除了对于当代影迷来说较为遥远外,观看途径是一个重要问题,虽有DVD和蓝光,但看它们和看大银幕的《桂河大桥》、《日瓦格医生》是两回事。当然,屏幕尺寸对于真正伟大的作品来说不是障碍,比如我曾在一个12寸的黑白电视机上看完了长达164分钟的《印度之行》,并被深深打动,在没看过大银幕的《阿拉伯的劳伦斯》之前的很长一段时间里,它是我心目中里恩最好的作品。另外,当代影迷对老电影的不重视、不系统地观看、年龄阅历等也有一定因素。

郑子宏:大卫•里恩是很实在说故事的那派,库布里克则是影像强烈;在微博和facebook流行,讲求当刻感受的新世代,自然较为受落。

兰波:应说库布里克更符合当下年轻影迷的口味,他的作品即使放到现在也不失其思考的深度和前沿性,加上其气质的先锋感,作品类型的丰富程度及每个类型都能达到非常高的水准,所以,文艺青年们都更偏爱他。

相较之下,大卫•里恩更加偏重于文学作品的改编,类型上比较偏向史诗和对时代的刻画,其作品所表达的主题需要相当的社会、历史、人文、地理、军事各方面的人文学科素养去细细品味,宛如百科全书和大部头的经典名著,气质上较符合上世纪前中时期主流观众的口味。加上由于人类社会的发展,现代生活节奏益加快捷,现在的年轻人更易接受口碑比较酷和短平快的作品所致,很少人愿意去看长达几百页的经典名著和欣赏三小时以上的长电影所致。

2、有人说,大卫•里恩的电影是荡气回肠的主旋律,你认为呢?

magasa:我不知道。

赛人:首先要定义何为主旋律,主旋律说穿了就是通过影像输入主流,严格来说是官方的意识形态。大卫•里恩的电影虽有着强烈的家国感,但它没有反映这日不落帝国的强盛和雄浑,以及所有外交辞令所能套用的词汇。它更多的是对这个曾经拥有殖民地的大联邦,为它的日薄西山大唱挽歌。这在《阿拉伯的劳伦斯》、《桂河大桥》、《印度之行》都非常明显,它们都是一群英国人“生活在别处”时的人生传奇,是大英帝国不折不扣又心不苦情不愿的大溃败。大卫•里恩的电影有着他极为鲜明的,不被他人左右的历史观和人生观。

张思雨:由于众所周知的原因,主旋律在中文里带着些贬义的色彩,与刻板、强制和禁锢联系在一起,直接挪过去讲大卫•里恩不是特别合适,个人更倾向于用“主流”来形容他的作品。大卫•里恩是某类英国电影人的典型——早年在英国拍片,积累足够的经验后通过八大制片厂在英国的分支机构打入好莱坞主流市场。比起美国本土和欧洲大陆的移民导演,他们更擅长体现W.A.S.P.(白种安格鲁-撒克逊新教徒)的文化面貌和价值观。换个角度来看,这就是他的使命吧。

林泽秋:那是因为只看了他一两部作品妄下的判断。

妖灵妖:里恩的作品只有在早中期是所谓主旋律的,比如他与诺尔•考沃德联合执导的《与祖国同在》,《欢乐天地》等。他中后期的史诗片根本不是主旋律,《桂河大桥》是不偏不倚表现不同文化与民族冲突的,中国人不一定会认为亚历克•金尼斯的做法是正确的、《阿拉伯的劳伦斯》根本是反英雄主义的,而且还有更进一步的反殖民元素、《日瓦格医生》对极权主义控诉,包括晚期的《印度之行》,这些电影都没有对人物和剧情做简单的二元论推进,特别需要指出的是,《桂河大桥》和《阿拉伯的劳伦斯》的几位编剧都是左倾,博尔特还因为示威游行被政府关入监狱,所以主旋律一词按在里恩的大片时期作品身上是非常可笑的观点,还荡气回肠……

郑子宏:大卫•里恩绝对是主流的导演,但有一种英国知识份子反叛的风骨。现实中他不能摆脱制度,他却喜欢挑战制度,但又对反建制的一方也有保留。劳伦斯也是他自己的缩影。

兰波:“荡气回肠”应说是他中后期作品的标志吧,尤其是从《桂河大桥》开始。其实他开始电影生涯的早期作品大多是文艺小品的精致表达,比如获得第一尊戛纳金棕榈大奖(那时还叫国际大奖)的《相见恨晚》,影像中的那些场景都是日常英国观众耳熟目详的生活出入场所,加上让他声名鹊起的两部电影《天伦之乐》和《快乐的精灵》,那时的平民气质还是相当浓厚的。即使中期的《女大不中留》和《艳阳天》,也都是相当有特色的性格喜剧电影和爱情电影,都是平民视角,并不荡气回肠。还有《一飞冲天》,类似《相见恨晚》,体现了他对电影技法有着近乎完美的判断和掌控,并不完全是以题材厚重取胜。

他的所谓“荡气回肠”是建立在后期史诗电影和两部前期改编自狄更斯同名小说的电影《远大前程》和《雾都孤儿》,因为这些原著就非常精彩,荡气回肠到让观众动容,譬如戈达尔等左倾主义导演攻击的《日瓦戈医生》,改编自获得诺贝尔文学奖的同名小说,所做的改编处理也相当精彩,所以电影界都公认大卫•里恩是最擅长改编经典文学成影像的导演。

在此,我更愿意用两个词来替代“荡气回肠”——“古典主义”和“普世价值”,窃以为,斯皮尔伯格一生大部分时候都以大卫•里恩为楷模,就是想学他这两个绝活,至于作品所体现的荡气回肠和弘阔浩大,都可以从这两个词出发推及。

3、如今,电影史大体上给出了定论。你最想推荐或者说最想翻案的一部大卫•里恩作品是什么?为什么?

magasa:《女大不中留》(Hobson’s Choice,1954),喜剧片,和他的其他作品不太一样。可能是他最好的那批作品中流传度最低的。

赛人:《印度之行》,只是说是我个人最喜欢的大卫•里恩作品。这是大卫•里恩的绝笔,不再那么大张旗鼓,而是心平气和地在云卷云舒,它也是大卫•里恩少有的对潜意识进行开掘的作品。影片依然保留着人与环境之间那种复杂而微妙的互动,通过一起神秘的性侵事件,英国人自然能从中看出这是在批判他们的国民性,我们则看到幻觉是多么不期然的说来就来。越真实,幻觉的蛊惑才越强大,电影的魅力何尝不是如此。

张思雨:《相见恨晚》。最纯粹。

林泽秋:说来惭愧,最近才看了《相见恨晚》,我喜欢这部电影,因为和“恢弘”影像的大卫•里恩相比,他也可以由小见大,简单的人物,场景,故事,但一样写出人心的缠绵悱恻欲拒还迎,光看几场火车戏已足够证明大卫•里恩完全明白“电影”是什么。

妖灵妖:若只推荐一部的话,显然是《阿拉伯的劳伦斯》。里恩的片子经过了历史沉淀后的定论都蛮准确的,有些影片刚上映时的评价不一定准确,包括《相见恨晚》,但日后都有较为公允的评价(国内学者的除外),不存在翻案一说。

郑子宏:《相见恨晚》,一对有夫之妇和有妇之夫的情缘,含蓄但有充满无奈,令我想起费穆的《小城之春》。

兰波:《相见恨晚》被提及得太多了,我不想在此重复,虽然这部电影电影手法极其高明,真挚的情感也曾经激荡过无数人的心,但它获得了金棕榈的肯定,这还不够么?

我最想重新提及和推荐的还是《瑞恩的女儿》和《印度之行》,两者都是对于大英帝国出身的大卫•里恩(请特别注意这个身份)对“日不落帝国”的一种谴责和略带自嘲的挽怀,为什么我会这样貌似矛盾地说?

谴责是基于里恩一生对殖民主义和帝国主义的不喜,他是当时英国少数不继续怀揣“帝国梦”的进步人士,对于第二次大战后的英帝国瓦解,并完成其历史使命有着相当清醒的认识,所以他才从基于这点出发,连续拍摄了《桂河大桥》、《阿拉伯的劳伦斯》和《印度之行》,这三部都是以大英帝国曾经的殖民地为舞台,主演也是大英帝国的子民。英国在此三处都遭受了非常大的挫败,宣告其曾掌控全球的“日不落帝国”地位之陨落:缅甸在二次大战失于于日本军国主义的魔爪;两次世界大战,英国在阿拉伯这个战略要地都被德国和土耳其严重威胁,直至1956年,独立后的埃及共和国迫使其交出苏伊士运河管理权;印度在二战后的独立就更不用说了,里恩能站在殖民地人民的角度上,从人道主义角度、从普世价值角度来反映这些重大的历史事件,这就是他后期作品创作主题上特别与众不同的地方。

此外,大卫•里恩还善意地嘲弄了英国人的英雄主义和理想主义,他怀念英国的贵族精神,但对其历史命运并不抱以同情,劳伦斯和尼科森上校就是其典型代表。他对英帝国长达两百多年黄金时期间,对于全球宪政法治精神的传播、传教士的热情和功绩、及经济全球一体化等历史贡献上,包括后来的英联邦所起到的推动作用还是颇为自豪的。所以造就了他比较矛盾的心情,但他总能从平民和异邦的角度去思考问题,丝毫没有大国沙文主义架子。从这点去对比其他导演,这点相当了不起,也是我最为钦佩他的地方。

在《瑞恩的女儿》这部电影里,他用一个爱情悲剧,思考了英国和北爱尔兰深层的地域文化冲突和宗教冲突,较为公允地对双方各自展现出来的伦理丑陋都进行了批判,且与之前他三部史诗电影不同,在这部影片里,没有赢家,没有对错,大家纠结在一起的命运都看不到将来,如何破解?大卫•里恩也无能为力,只能交给历史,交给时间,发出“我不知道的”喟叹,这是他前期平民视角和后期普世价值结合得最好的一部电影,现在来看,除了节奏偏慢,其他挑不出毛病。

综述:我认为,大卫•里恩是最“以人为本”的伟大导演,尤其在他作品里,最能体现“高贵“二字,这是我特别喜欢他的地方。

【请参阅上篇『阿拉伯的劳伦斯』

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Cinephilia

迷影网(Cinephilia.net)创立于2010年,聚焦于创作和搜集最好的华语电影文字内容,翻译传播海外电影学术界和评论界的声音,用更为生活化的方式解读电影,结合编辑部、专栏作者群以及所有愿意分享个体电影体验的读者们,共同创造出中文世界里独具特色、质量兼备的电影网站。

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