《她》:美式小清新 内敛更闷骚

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在大热美剧《生活大爆炸》中某集,无法与生活中的异性交谈的印度小哥,迷上了的苹果手机的Siri系统。科学地讲,Siri远远算不上人工智能。这让人不禁幻想,当人工智能真的能达到具有自主意识与情感的地步,印度小哥的故事会不会成为现实?电影《她》的出现,仿佛专门是为了回答这个问题。

而影片对这个问题的回答,是个坚定的Yes。片中的主人公西奥多-托姆布莱与人工智能操作系统OS1之间的关系,显得真实而自然。选择斯嘉丽-乔纳森来给电脑角色沙曼莎配音,对于提升这种关系的说服力很有帮助。在现场拍摄的时候,本来是另一位女演员沙曼莎-莫顿用声音演绎OS1,到后期制作时才换成了斯嘉丽。不论声音表现力,单就声线而言,斯嘉丽那相对沙哑而性感的嗓音,不仅对宅男而言很有杀伤力,在一般人听来,也会有种很私密亲近的感觉,这种感觉,的确更符合片中人工智能操作系统的定位,有助于让观众和主角一起感同身受新科技带来的异样而迷人的体验。

谈到定位,本片从框架设定来看,是很典型的科幻片,甚至可以说是很“硬”的科幻电影:片中所展示的语音识别人机交互系统、三维全息成像、乃至人工智能,都是在可预见的未来能取得突破性进展的科技领域。这些科幻元素不仅是本片必不可少的剧情内容,还是影片想要探讨的主题之一。本片在多处强调主角在工作之外的孤独感——特别是他通过网络寻找短暂激情的段落——似乎是“坐实”了对技术宅男们的讽刺。西奥多的工作——那家专门代人写信的公司——是影片一大妙笔:看似便利窝心的科技服务,反映了未来人类在处理最原始而直接的情感交流时,可能会陷入越发无能乏力的状态。对照当今被各种社交媒体“辅助加强”的人际交流,你不能不说《她》有用科幻来反思当下之意。

但是,个人认为“针砭时弊”并非本片主要目标;而且,从具体情节来看,也很难将主角的“孤独感”归结为“技术的异化”。如果认真体会,编导在片中所描绘的未来,其实是别具一格的,很难套用“乌托邦”或“敌托邦”这两种常规科幻类型。确切的说,相对于影迷们熟悉的硬科幻,本片没有那种集中式的、工业化的设计;恰恰相反,本片以“做减法”的方式,将未来的技术设计得很家常,比如片中的台式电脑显示器,看起来比目前的iMac还朴实得多;而作为主要道具的掌上电脑/手机,其设计更是简单得和烟盒或女士们的随身梳妆镜差不多。技术设定之外,本片整体的美术设计,也在以协调统一的方式传递特定意味,比如在视觉上很明显的橘红色主色调,无论是主角经常穿戴的衬衫外套,还是办公室或家里的装潢,甚至大部分外景与内景的用光,都有一种被柔和的阳光笼罩的感觉,温暖而舒适。

编导如此风格化的场景设定与影像处理,其实是想告诉观众:主角西奥多的孤独,和外在技术或生活空间没有任何关系。编导对他与OS1人工智能之间的情感发展,并不是当做“人机恋”的“奇情恋”案例来探讨,而是借助人工智能这个非典型形式,从最通用意义上思考情感的本质及其演变过程。

也就是说,片中由斯嘉丽演绎的人工智能,就她与西奥多之间的情感关系而言,完全可以当做“异地恋的女友”看待。所以,我也不认为本片是在探讨所谓“灵肉分离的情感”,至少在那令人耳热心跳的黑屏场景中,西奥多与OS1之间是达到了“灵肉合一”的,而之后在男主角这边,也不存在任何别扭与不满;至于沙曼莎对“人肉替身”的尝试,与其说是想修补灵肉分离的遗憾,不如说是在探索体验更真实的人类情感。对于沙曼莎而言,那是她作为一个具有自主意识与情感的人工智能不断学习与成长的过程。

综观全片,如何在各自成长中维系感情,如何在变化中不迷失自己,这恐怕才是影片在科幻表象下探讨的主题。很多人以片中“前妻”的评语来审视西奥多与人工智能的关系,认为男主角的确无法处理真人情感,殊不知“前妻”本身、及其代表的主角过去的情感,都是本片剖析的对象。影片结尾时西奥多写给前妻的信,也表明了他在与人工智能OS1的关系中,看清了情感本身超乎想象的复杂与微妙,从而也理解了他与前妻之间的纠葛与分歧,其实并没有谁对谁错。

这种情感的变化曲线,其实是现实生活中你我可能都会经历的。所谓“相爱容易相守难”,有时候,相守的困难并不在于“七年之痒”或第三者插足,而在于关系中双方追求的变化,最终可能导致最初同行的道路开始分歧、并渐行渐远。只不过在本片中,因为对方是成长速度飞快、且似乎追求无止境的人工智能,所以这种“跟不上节奏”的过程被放大加快了;而且也正因为OS1不是人类,她不能委曲求全,也让主人公无法死缠烂打。

个人觉得最后这一幕其实是有问题的,因为片中人工智能与人类的亲密关系,既有沙曼莎和西奥多这样的恋人关系,也有艾米和她的OS1系统那样的知心姐妹淘关系,最后却是一样的结局,这种殊途同归虽说从硬科幻角度来看很有意义(代表人工智能的集体进化),但对表现本片情感主题而言,则有些过于笼统和仓促。

好在斯派克-琼斯用他清新脱俗的视听语言,很好地遮盖了叙事逻辑的些许不足。虽说硬科幻只是个皮囊,但赋予影片“现实之上”的距离感,体现在视觉上是一种既熟悉又陌生的新鲜劲,一如片中男性角色那些让人无法忽视的高腰裤,最初的愕然过后反而有种古怪的亲和力。在摄影和剪辑上,基本剔除了蓝色的画面,可以用明艳来形容,但这种艳丽又被处理得比较温和,同样透露出可爱劲。多角度人物特写,与周遭环境大全景的交叉剪辑,让主角与人工智能之间的情感交流,既显得真实可信,又有种无法掌控的不安与伤感。对比韦斯-安德森那样浓烈饱和的风格化处理,琼斯玩的“小清新”相对内敛,但更见闷骚。

《她》未必是2013年最好的电影,但它绝对是这个颁奖季气质最为独特的作品。单为这点,就值得大力推荐。

原摘于凤凰网电影

(编辑:段进宇)

红袖添饭

非电影专业,非电影相关工作。蹲点米国帝都为接应英勇的人民解放军而作准备。看电影主要为怡情,顺便码字写些废话骗奶粉钱。《看电影》《环球银幕》《电影世界》《大众电影》《中国新闻周刊》、网易、时光网、搜狐、腾讯、凤凰等诸多媒体都被骗过,目前正以凌波微步逃避各方人马追杀ing。

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