【译】伟大的电影之《黄金三镖客》(作者:Roger Ebert)

THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY Final Shootout |来自网络
THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY Final Shootout |来自网络

一幅广袤空旷的西部景象。摄像机镜头从一端扫至另一端,然后滑动到一张晒伤、绝望的脸上。远景镜头未经剪切已经变为了特写,揭示这片景色并非空空如也,而是被一个离我们很近的亡命徒占据。

在这些开场画面中,塞尔吉奥·莱昂内(Sergio Leone)建立了一个他在《黄金三镖客》中自始至终都遵循的规则。这个规则是:可见性是受画面边界限制的。电影中的重要场景,摄像机不能看到,角色也无法看到,这点给了莱昂内用拍摄中实际地理状况无法解释的出场让观众惊讶的自由。例如有一个场景,角色一直没有注意到联邦军队的庞大营地直到失足踩在上面。还有一个墓地中的场景,一个人从稀薄的空气中突然出现,虽然他在距离一英里远时就理应能被看见了。还有角色毫无遮挡地走在街上但没有人能够开枪打中他们的设定,可能是因为他们不在同一个画面里。

莱昂内一点也不关心实际的或者是似是而非的东西,他在西部电影陈词滥调的渣滓之上创造他的伟大影片,用风格将破烂提升为艺术。这部电影于1967年年末在美国公映,也即距其前作《荒野大镖客》(A Fistful of Dollars 1964 )和《黄昏双镖客》(For a Few Dollars More 1965)上映后不久,观众们喜欢它,但他们知道喜欢的原因吗?我在东方剧院(Oriental Theatre)楼厅的第一排看的这部电影,戏院巨大的宽银幕对莱昂内歌剧式的构图再合适不过了。我产生了强烈的反应,但我成为影评人还不满一年,还并不具备将本能置于审慎之上的判断力。翻看我以前的评论,我发现自己把它描述成一部4星的电影却只给了它3星,可能因为它是一部“意大利通心粉西部片”,所以并没有把它看成是艺术。

但它的确是艺术,自莱昂内的想象中召唤而出,然后如此栩栩如生地描绘在了大银幕上,以至于我们都忘记了这些电影其实是边缘作品——如克林特·伊斯特伍德是被好莱坞拒之门外的人,又如因预算限制(《荒野大镖客》为20万美元)而没有太多对白造成的剧情不连续,因为无声拍摄然后用音乐和音效填充音轨要容易的多。甚至还有为了让影片看起来更美国化的无用尝试;我从影评人格伦·埃里克森(Glenn Erickson)那里得知莱昂内在《荒野大镖客》最早的拷贝中被称为“鲍勃·罗伯森(Bob Robertson)”;而作曲家埃尼奥·莫里康内(Ennio Morricone),他寂寞、哀伤的配乐是影片不可缺少的部分,则是”丹·萨维奥(Dan Savio)”。甚至伊斯特伍德的角色,那个著名的“无名客”,也是宣传方的发明;他在第一部电影中被称作“乔(Joe)”,第二部“曼科(Manco)”,第三部则是“布兰迪(Blondie)”。可能正是意大利通心粉三部曲微妙的异国风味,尤其是最杰出的《黄金三镖客》,暗示我们这几部电影并非是传统的西部片,而是来自另外一个全然不同的宇宙。为代替来自选角部门乏味的好莱坞临时演员,我们看到一定是被西班牙人聚居地雇用的当地人——他们看上去长期受到劳作和烈日的折磨。想想那个失去双腿的乞丐,他用胳膊支撑自己走进一个酒馆,喊道:“给我一杯威士忌!”。

约翰·福特(John Ford)将纪念碑谷当作他西部片角色的活动范围,并且在那里拍摄了伟大的电影,但莱昂内咄咄逼人的西班牙深景中有一些新的、不同寻常的东西。我们以前没有见过这样的沙漠。约翰·维恩(John Wayne)从没到过这里。莱昂内的故事是一个拔高了的梦境,比起生活,故事里所有的东西都更宏大、更荒凉、更野蛮、更具戏剧性。

莱昂内更多地使用画面而不是语言来讲故事。试分析那个墓地中的大师级场景。传言一大笔黄金被埋在墓地的其中一个墓穴里,三个都想要得到这笔黄金的人已经聚集到一起。他们是克林特·伊斯特伍德(好人),李·范·克里夫Lee Van Cleef 坏人), 和埃里·瓦拉赫(Eli Wallach丑人)。每个人都用手枪指着另一个。如果其中一个人开枪,所有人就都会开枪,大家都会死。除非两个人决定打死第三个人,在他能打死他俩任何一个之前。但谁是那两个人,谁又是第三个人?莱昂内超乎寻常地拍摄了这个段落,从远景开始逐渐拉近为对手枪,面部,眼睛,和大量汗水和苍蝇的特写。他好像是在考验自己,看他能维持悬念多久。但这还是真正意义上的悬念吗?它或许完全是一次风格的演练,一次导演有意的操纵,为的是将观众的注意力聚集到电影本身。如果你能体会到莱昂内玩弄拙劣模仿时的大胆,你就理解了他的方法。这不是一个故事,而是一次对无畏姿态的赞美。

伊斯特伍德,34岁时第一次和莱昂内合作,已经拥有了不容质疑的威信。他因主演电视剧《牛皮》(Rawhide,1959-1965,在CBS播出的一个共八季的西部电视连续剧,译者注)出道,那时人们认为电影观众并不会掏钱去看一个他们能免费看到的演员,这还被拿来大做文章。伊斯特伍德战胜了这个偏见,但是并不是任何演员都能够做到这点——也不是和任何导演合作就可以。他说他接下莱昂内的这些角色是因为他想拍电影而好莱坞不愿雇用他。

是的,但伊斯特伍德自己后来也成为一名重要的导演,而即使这样他也一定意识到莱昂内不仅仅是又一个意大利魔幻史诗的传播者,而更是一个充满激情的人。莱昂内和伊斯特伍德一起让“无名客”不仅简单地超越了电视明星,更是超越了电影明星——一个从来不需要解释自己的人,一个靴子、手指和眼睛就被认为足以占据整个银幕的人。

我怀疑伊斯特伍德的角色对白够不够图科(Tuco)——埃里·瓦拉赫的角色——的十分之一。“无名客”从不讲话;图科从不停下。这是瓦拉赫最优秀的表演之一,他避开了让角色看上去荒唐的潜在可能,把他塑造成了一个绝望、充满恐惧的形象。当他表现得像个小丑,我们感觉到这是图科的策略,而不是他的个性。瓦拉赫是舞台剧的老手,曾受过“方法演技”训练,他认真地出演了这个报酬很低的角色并且创造出了一些有感召力的东西。

扮演天使眼(Angel Eyes)的李·范·克里夫出生于新泽西,是一位已经拍过53部电影和无数电视剧集的资深演员,其中许多是西部片(他的第一部电影作品是《正午》(High Noon),在其中饰演帮派的一员)。在一部有很多人眯着眼睛的电影里,他是眯地最小的,并且闪烁着疯狂的妄念。

三个人都想得到那笔内战时的黄金,而他们合起来才知道关于它位置的全部秘密(一个知道是哪片墓地但不知道哪一座坟墓,另一个知道墓碑上的名字却不知道在哪片墓地)。所以他们都知道自己会活着直到找到那座坟墓,在这之后他们就很可能会试图杀死另外两个。

在一部现今修复版本长达180分钟的电影里,光有那些情节是不够的,但是莱昂内不缺其他点子。例如开场时的枪战,出现了不相干的角色。例如那个骗局,瓦拉赫扮演一个通缉犯,伊斯特伍德为了赏金把他交给警察,等到他马上要被绞死时伊斯特伍德又精准地开枪打中绳索。例如那精彩的沙漠片段,在伊斯特伍德把瓦拉赫丢弃在沙漠中后,瓦拉赫对伊斯特伍德做了同样的事,而太阳就像《贪婪》(Greed)里那样炙烤着。例如那让人难忘的逃亡四轮马车,装满了死人和将死之人。同时,令人惊讶地,还有一个野心勃勃的内战片段,几乎是一部电影中的电影,亮点是阿尔多·久弗瑞(Aldo Giuffre)扮演的联邦军队上尉动人的表演,这位上尉将他酗酒的原因解释得很简单:开战前有最多的烈酒去灌醉自己部队的指挥官就是赢得胜利的那一个。他咽气时的台词:“能帮我再多活一小会儿吗?我在期待好消息。”

塞尔吉奥·莱昂内(1929-1989)是一位有着无限远见和野心的导演,他在创造意大利通心粉西部片时几乎也创造了自己。在埃里克森(Erickson)发表在www.DVDtalk.com关于“三部曲”让人很受用的文章中,他谈到莱昂内“宣称自己是罗伯特·奥尔德里奇(Robert Aldrich)的意大利电影《天火焚城录》(Sodom and Gomorrah, 1962)的助理导演,虽然他一天后就被解雇了”来炒作他自己的职业经历。莱昂内1961年拍过一部被遗忘的罗马帝国史诗电影,然后依照黑泽明的武士电影《用心棒》(Yojimbo)拍摄了《荒野大镖客》。所以可能格斯·范·桑特(Gus Van Sant)逐镜头翻拍的《惊魂记》(Psycho,1998),并非是这个手法第一次使用。

作为一个想法没有局限的人,莱昂内拍摄了另外两部毋庸置疑的杰作,《西部往事》(Once Upon a Time in the West, 1968)以及《美国往事》(Once Upon a Time in America, 1984)。在他职业生涯的末期,好莱坞并不信任时间很长的电影,并且犯罪般地将《美国往事》从227分钟削减为一部有时让人难以理解的139分钟电影。《黄金三镖客》的第一版被删去了19分钟。但其所有电影的未删节版本都可以在DVD里看到,于是他究竟有多优秀愈加变得清楚了。


|作者:罗杰·伊伯特 Roger Ebert
|来源:http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly-1968
|译者:JamesSpoke  校对:Ron Huang @迷影翻译
|编辑:马媛媛

上海电影博物馆将于2013年9月举办塞尔吉奥·莱昂内电影回顾展,敬请关注排片信息。
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(编辑:马媛媛)

Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert

罗杰·伊伯特(1942.06.18-2013.04.04),美国当代最著名的影评人,从1967年开始在《芝加哥太阳报》(Chicago Sun-Times)担任影评人直至去世。他也是有史以来第一次凭借电影评论而赢得普利策奖的影评人。他创办的同名影评网站在他身后被很多影评人坚持运营,现在依旧是最受影迷欢迎的评论网站。

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